Nutritional recommendations for before, during and after training sessions or competitions.
Some of the most frequently asked questions are about dietary intake of food and liquids before, during, and after exercise. In fact, athletes are bombarded with poor nutritional information, causing confusion about what they should eat or drink during training or, more importantly, during competition. This article provides scientific guidance on the selection of foods and beverages that are easy to understand and adopt and enable athletes to maximize their potential.
Recently, the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine issued a joint statement on nutrition and sports performance (Rodríguez et al., 2009). Among other issues, the position statement has used science-based evidence to make recommendations to athletes about food and fluid intake before, during and after activity. Using this document as a basis, the guidelines outlined here have been developed to provide practical recommendations that dietitians can use to help athletes choose foods and fluids before, during and after training or competition.
1. Athletes should eat before physical activity rather than working in a fasting state (Rodríguez et al., 2009).
Consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (CHO) before muscle glycogen populations increases and maintains blood sugar. Studies have shown that consumption of a low-fat, moderate-protein, high-protein pre-exercise fiber in CHO can prolong exercise time and provide additional energy (Jentjens et al., 2003 Moseley, Lancaster Jeukendrup, 2003).
2. At least 4 hours before the activity, athletes should drink about 5-7 milliliters per kilogram of body weight (2-3 ml per kilo of body weight) of water or a sports drink (Rodríguez et al. .
Fluid consumption at least 4 hours before training allows sufficient time to optimize the state of hydration and allow the excretion of excess fluid (Rodríguez et al., 2009). Fluid consumption varies according to environmental factors, exercise intensity, body size, training status and gender. A sports drink consumed before exercise should contain 6% -8% CHO (CHO 60-80 grams per liter) and 110-165 milligrams of sodium per 8 ounce serving (Chryssanthopoulos and Williams 1997; Chryssanthopoulos et al., 2002 ).
3. The volume of food prior to work or snack, the time of ingestion and the beginning of training are interrelated (Rodríguez et al., 2009).
Athletes should consume smaller meals closer to the start of a competition, while the larger meal should be consumed by supplementary training. CHO studies in which athletes consume 200-300 grams of CHO 3-4 hours prior to competition have been shown to contribute to performance (Rodríguez et al., 2009, Bloch and Wheeler, 1999). Athletes can benefit from consumption of liquid CHO, such as pre-exercise or drinks gels (25 g CHO / 4 ounces) or sports drinks (containing 6% to 8% CHO solution) an hour or less before the start of business Anantaraman et al., 1995). Consumption of a concentrated source of CHO about 15 minutes before a workout works well when athletes do along with CHO intake during this workout.
4. Individual needs and preferences of athletes should be identified and met (Rodríguez et al., 2009).
Athletes should always experiment with the type, amount, and timing of a meal before work before a training session; They should not start a new strategy to competition. This will allow athletes to find foods that work for their events and do not limit performance.
Nutrition during a workout
1. Research supports the advantage that CHO consumption in amounts generally provided in sports drinks (6% -8% CHO) has the performance of resistance in events lasting 1 hour or less (Rodríguez et al., 2009; Sugiura and Kobayashi 1998, Jeukendrup et al 1997, Nicholas et al., 1995).
2. For longer events, consumption of 30 to 60 grams of CHO / hour has been shown to extend resistance yield (Rodríguez et al., 2009).